The number of oropharyngeal and anal cancers linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past few decades. HPV-positive (HPV+) cancers are epidemiologically distinct from HPV negative cancers. HPV+ oropharyngeal cancers are characterized by younger age of onset, less exposure to alcohol, and higher socioeconomic status and education. Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy. However, an increased incidence has been associated with female gender, infection with HPV, lifetime number of sexual partners, genital warts, cigarette smoking, receptive anal intercourse, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Multimodality imaging, including PET, MRI, and PET/CT, plays an important role in the diagnosis, primary staging, treatment planning and post-treatment evaluation and follow-up in these HPV+ cancers. Understanding the benefits of various imaging modalities in the management of these cancers may provide important prognostic information to enhance patient outcomes.
After reading this article, the participant should be able to:
- Identify high-risk HPV genotypes and their relationship to oropharyngeal and anal cancers.
- Compare and contrast different imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of HPV+ oropharyngeal and anal cancers.
- Describe FDG PET/CT prognostic metabolic markers used in the management of patients with oropharyngeal cancer.
- Discuss radiation therapy options for the management of HPV+ oropharyngeal and anal cancers.
Categories: Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Therapy/Dosimetry