Fluoroscopy Equipment, Procedures, and Protocols: An In-Depth Review

George Tsoukatos, BPS, RT(R)

*Medical Imaging Consultant, Germantown, NY

Address correspondence to: George Tsoukatos, BPS, RT(R), Radiology Support Services, PO Box 215, Germantown, NY 12526. Email: radiologytechnique@gmail.com.

Disclosure Statement: The author reports having no significant financial or advisory relationships with corporate organizations related to this activity.


Fluoroscopy has been in clinical use since shortly after Roentgen's discovery of the X-ray. It is widely utilized for diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional procedures, as it can provide real-time images of dynamic processes occurring within the body, especially with the introduction of a contrast agent. As fluoroscopy utilization has grown substantially over time, and the imaging technology has spread beyond the standard hospital radiology department into other areas including orthopedics, pain management, gastroenterology, cardiology, and vascular specialties. The advancement of interventional imaging has led to potential prolonged exposure times to both operator and patient, and as a result, the most current safety precautions should be undertaken. This course focuses on the technical evolution and advancements in fluoroscopic equipment, procedures, technical parameters, and various components. It will also review the latest safety precautions and protocols that should be adhered to given the technological advancements of this modality.

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